Marseille star Payet limped out of Wednesday's Europa League final defeat by Atletico Madrid and doubts over his fitness for the trip to Russian Federation forced Deschamps' hand.
Payet was one of France's stars at Euro 2016, when they reached the final as hosts before losing to Portugal.
Former Newcastle forward Florian Thauvin takes one of the attacking places ahead of Lacazette and Martial.
After returning from injury at the end of Manchester City's record-breaking Premier League title success, Benjamin Mendy has done enough to earn a place, although team-mate Aymeric Laporte - City's record signing - misses out.
PMJT calls for investigation after London doctor shot in Gaza
Germany, Belgium and Ireland and several UN Security Council members have also called for an investigation into Monday's carnage. We are engaging with Israeli officials to get to the bottom of these events", he continued.
He went off injured in Marseille's Europa League final defeat to Atletico Madrid on Wednesday night.
"I dreamed of participating in this World Cup like all the children who will watch this World Cup", said the 19-year-old Mbappe.
France have been drawn in Group C this summer and begin their World Cup campaign against Australia on June 16.
But before France venture to Russian Federation, they have three worldwide friendlies against Republic of Ireland, Italy and United States of America.