"At first a suicide bomber opened fire and martyred two security guards at the entrance of the mosque and then they entered inside", he told Reuters.
However, the Interior Ministry spokesman Najib Danish said the Crisis Response Unit of the Afghan National Police arrived at the attack scene sharply after it happened.
By Friday evening, police said they had secured the mosque in the Khair Khana area of the capital, and three attackers were dead.
The Islamic State has claimed responsibility for all of the targeted attacks against the Shiites.
They say many wounded were taken to hospital.
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Imam Zaman is one of the main Shi'ite mosques in the area and more people attend mosques on a Friday, the Muslim holy day of the week.
The attack is the latest in a spate of strikes against Shiites in Afghanistan where both the Taliban and the affiliates of the Islamic State are fighting against the government and the foreign troops.
Some witnesses at the scene said the attackers threw grenades, while police officials said a suicide bomber detonated himself at the gate.
No group claimed responsibility for the attack. The assault was repulsed by the security forces with the help of the Afghan Air Force. Among the security forces, two were killed and seven others wounded.